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Expected Sums of General Parking Functions
Joseph P.S. Kung1 and Catherine Yan2
1Department of Mathematics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
kung@unt.edu
2Department of Mathematics, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
cyan@math.tamu.edu
Annals of Combinatorics 7 (4) p.481-493 December, 2003
AMS Subject Classification: 05A15, 05A19, 05A20, 05E35
Abstract:
A (u1, u2, ...)-parking function of length n is a sequence (x1, x2, ..., xn) whose order statistics (the sequence (x(1), x(2), ..., x(n)) obtained by rearranging the original sequence in non-decreasing order) satisfy x(i) ui. The Gončarov polynomials gn(x; a0, a1, ..., an-1) are polynomials biorthogonal to the linear functionals , where is evaluation at a and D is differentiation. In this paper, we give explicit formulas for the first and second moments of sums of u-parking functions using Gončarov polynomials by solving a linear recursion based on a decomposition of the set of sequences of positive integers. We also give a combinatorial proof of one of the formulas for the expected sum. We specialize these formulas to the classical case when ui = a + (i-1)b and obtain, by transformations with Abel identities, different but equivalent formulas for expected sums. These formulas are used to verify the classical case of the conjecture that the expected sums are increasing functions of the gaps ui+1 - ui. Finally, we give analogues of our results for real-valued parking functions.
Keywords: parking functions, Gončarov polynomials, Abel identities

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